The nature of crime legal studies
The most familiar account of the distinction has it that while justified actors deny wrongdoing, excused actors deny either responsibility or culpability Austin ; Fletcher ; Greenawalt ; Baron This is known as the thin skull rule. Some hold a mixed view that combines elements of those considered above Alexander and Ferzan3—19; Simester and von Hirsch3—18; Tadros— This expressive function is sometimes associated with criminal punishment Husak92— Call this the curial view.
Nature of criminal law
But in the earliest times the "state" did not always provide an independent policing force. Users may become less willing to seek medical treatment for fear of exposing their criminality, and may end up with criminal records that lead to social exclusion, and damage their employment prospects for years to come United Nations To combat objections, of course, is not itself to make a positive case for such laws. The punitive view tells us nothing about what justifies criminal punishment. The Sumerian was deeply conscious of his personal rights and resented any encroachment on them, whether by his King, his superior, or his equal. To take but one example, think of regulations that govern the activities of corporations, and which protect the health and safety of the public at large. The most familiar account of the distinction has it that while justified actors deny wrongdoing, excused actors deny either responsibility or culpability Austin ; Fletcher ; Greenawalt ; Baron Can an explanation be given of why these violations are nonetheless morally wrongful? The question is where the line is, and how it is to be defended against objections like those sketched above.
Lawyers sometimes express the two concepts with the phrases malum in se and malum prohibitum respectively. The criminal law should not ambush us unexpectedly. Imagine it is sufficient that S realises P might act wrongly. A duty can arise through contract a voluntary undertaking,  a blood relation with whom one lives,  and occasionally through one's official position.
This is explained in large part by the consequences of criminal conviction. The courts used the concept of malum in se to develop various common law offences.
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