The four categories of concepts of politics as power by andrew haywood
Incommensurability: An inability to compare or judge between rival beliefs or propositions, because of the absence of common features. Polarity: The existence within a system of one or more significant actors, or 'poles', which affect the behaviour of other actors and shape the contour of the system itself, determining its structural dynamics.
Andrew heywood politics pdf
Let us know! Peak oil: The point at which the maximum rate of petroleum extraction is reached. Clash of civilizations thesis: The theory that, in the post-Cold War world, conflict would not primarily be ideological or economic, but rather cultural in character. Dependency theory: A neo-Marxist theory that highlights structural imbalances within international capitalism that impose dependency and underdevelopment on poorer states and regions. Precautionary principle: The presumption in favour of action in relation to major ecological and other issues over which there is scientific uncertainty, based on the fact that the costs of inaction vastly exceed the cost of possibly unnecessary action. Functionalism: The theory that government is primarily responsive to human needs; functionalism is associated with incremental steps towards integration, within specific areas of policy-making, at a pace controlled by constituent states. Mercantilism: An economic philosophy, most influential in Europe from the fifteenth century to the late seventeenth century, which emphasizes the state's role in managing international trade and guaranteeing prosperity. Good governance: Standards for the process of decision-making in society, including according to the UN popular participation, respect for the rule of law, transparency, responsiveness, consensus orientation, equity and inclusiveness, effectiveness and efficiency, and accountability. Devolution: The transfer of power from central government to subordinate regional institutions that, unlike federal institutions, have no share in sovereignty. Orientalism: Stereotypical depictions of 'the Orient' or Eastern culture generally which are based on distorted and invariably demeaning western assumptions. Behaviouralism: The belief that social theories should be constructed only on the basis of observable behaviour, providing quantifiable data for research. Insurgency: An armed uprising, involving irregular soldiers, which aims to overthrow the established regime. Poverty cycle: A set of circumstances that tend to make poverty self-perpetuating through its wider impact on health, civic order, political and economic performance and so on. Hegemon: A leading or paramount power.
Brinkmanship: A strategy of escalating confrontation even to the point of risking war going to the brink aimed at persuading an opponent to back down.
Pan-nationalism: A style of nationalism dedicated to unifying a disparate people through either expansionism or political solidarity 'pan' means all or every.
Neoliberal internationalism: A perspective on international politics that remodelled liberalism in the light of the challenge of realism, particularly neorealism; it emphasizes the scope for cooperative behaviour within the international system while not denying its anarchic character.
Total war: A war involving all aspects of society, including large-scale conscription, the gearing of the economy to military ends, and the aim of achieving unconditional surrender through the mass destruction of enemy targets, civilian and military.
Postmodernism: An intellectual tradition that is based on the belief that truth is always contested and plural; sometimes summed up as 'an incredulity towards metanarratives' Lyotard Individuality: Self-fulfilment achieved though the realization of one's own distinctive or unique identity or qualities; that which distinguishes one person from all other people.
Wilsonianism: An approach to foreign policy that emphasizes the promotion of democracy as a means of ensuring peace, in line with the ideas of Woodrow Wilson see p. Systematically revised and updated throughout, it also uses a range of tried-and-tested pedagogical features to draw links between different standpoints and help make contemporary institutions, events and developments come to life.
What is politics
Functionalism: The theory that government is primarily responsive to human needs; functionalism is associated with incremental steps towards integration, within specific areas of policy-making, at a pace controlled by constituent states. Resource war: A war that is fought to gain or retain control of resources which are important to economic development and political power. Sustainability: The capacity of a system to maintain its health and continuing existence over a period of time. Rational; choice theory: An approach to analysis in which models are constructed based on procedural rule, usually about the rationally-self-interested behaviour of the individuals concerned. Bandwagon: To side with a stronger power in the hope of increasing security and influence; 'jumping on the bandwagon'. Compellance: A tactic or strategy designed to force an adversary to make concessions against its will through war or the threat of aggression. Asymmetrical war: War fought between opponents with clearly unequal levels of military, economic and technological power, in which warfare strategies tend to be adapted to the needs of the weak. This allows our team to focus on improving the library and adding new essays.
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